Apollo’s Most Important Discovery (Inside NASA’s Moon Rock Vault!)

Apollo’s Most Important Discovery (Inside NASA’s Moon Rock Vault!)

Hey smart people, Joe here. This is our planet. And this is the moon. And this is how far apart they ACTUALLY are,
to scale. You might not know this, but compared to other
moons in our solar system, our moon is weird. It’s 1/80th of Earth’s mass, which may
not sound like a lot, but it’s ridiculously big compared to the size of the planet it
orbits. For comparison, Saturn’s largest moon Titan
is this big compared to our moon, but less than 1/4000th of its host planet’s mass! So how the heck did this chubby little nugget–the
moon we call THE MOON–form? The answer to that question is locked inside
a vault at NASA’s Johnson Space Center, right down the road in Houston, Texas. And I recently paid them a visit and in the
process got closer to the moon than I ever thought possible. Joe:  Does anybody have the combination to
this thing? Joe: This looks like a vault. Ryan: It turns out it is a vault. Joe:   
Ryan: So this is a US Federal Reserve Bank vault from 1978
Joe: Really? That’s pretty cool. Joe: What’s inside is worth more than money
Ryan: There is no price on what’s inside this. 70% of the moon rocks on earth are inside
this vault. Joe: 70% of the moon rocks are in there. That is very important room. Ryan: Yes. Joe: Can we, can we go in? Ryan: We can. You wanna open the door? Joe: Yes! I want to open the door. That door weighs more than 4000 kilograms. And behind it are more than 300 kilograms
of rocks brought back to Earth by astronauts on six of the Apollo missions. Back in the 1960s, even though scientists
had figured out enough science to put people on the moon, they still didn’t know how
it had formed. The rocks we brought back were the key to
unlocking this centuries-long mystery. Some scientists, like Charles Darwin’s son
George, had thought maybe the Earth once spun so fast that a chunk ripped off. Others thought the moon formed elsewhere in
the solar system and was captured by Earth’s gravity. Most of these original theories sound pretty
loony. Incidentally, the words “loony” or “lunacy”
come from the old idea that the moon made people temporarily insane. But then in 1969, during the very first moonwalk, one astronaut made a lucky decision that gave
scientists the hint they’d been waiting for. In July 1969 NASA blasted three men to the
moon aboard Apollo 11, and on July 20th Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin touched down in
the Sea of Tranquility. They took some small steps, a few giant leaps,
and a lot of pictures. And then, at the last minute, right before
they launched back to Earth, this happened: Joe: These come from Apollo 11 right? Ryan: Yep. This was the last sample collected on Apollo
11, as Neil Armstrong’s outside the LEM, the lunar excursion module, getting ready to seal
up the rock box. He looked inside and thought it looks kind
of empty. And so what he decided to do is just shovel
four shovels fulls of dirt into the, uh, the rock box and then sealed it up. And it turned out being this sample, and it
was the largest single sample of brought back from Apollo 11. And that became a really important sample
because as people looked through it, they found little fragments of white rock and they’re
like, oh, it’s anorthosite. That’s weird. Why would there be anorthosite on the moon? Yep! That’s right. Anorthosite! On the moon! Wait, why is that weird? You know what? To understand why this scoop of soil was such
a big deal, we need to back this story up a little bit. To 1609… … in Florence, Italy, where a guy named
Galileo Galilei had taken a new invention called a Perspicillum and aimed it at the
moon. Today, we call that invention a telescope. Across the terminator, the line of light and
shadow stretching across the partial moon, Galileo saw it had areas of high and low terrain. He thought that, like on Earth, the darker,
low-lying areas were seas, so he called them “maria”. Apollo 11 touched down in one of these, the
“Sea of Tranquility”. The moon’s highlands, on the other hand,
were lighter in color, like this spot where Apollo 16 landed. And many of the shadowy shapes Galileo saw
we later realized were impact craters. All of this together told us that the moon
was really, really old, and it had gotten its butt kicked for a really long time. After billions of years of impacts with space
rocks the outer 5 to 15 meters of the moon’s surface had been ground up into fine-grained
stuff called “regolith”. And that’s the sandy stuff Neil Armstrong
scooped up. Back on Earth, scientists painstakingly counted
1,676 individual grains of regolith in Neil’s shovelful, and in that they found 84 specks
of white stuff that they didn’t expect to find there. This sent NASA scientists on a Sherlock Holmes-style
hunt for an explanation. For that white anorthosite to get to the Sea
of Tranquility, it must have been blasted there by a giant impact, like a meteorite,
from hundreds of km away in the moon’s highlands, those lighter areas. And if the highlands–which cover most of
the moon–were anorthosite, that meant most of the moon was covered in that white rock…
elementary. Ryan: To make anorthosite the main rock from
the moon, be this white anorthosite, you need to have a global ocean of magma that covers
the entire moon, that’s hundreds if not thousands of kilometers thick. Let’s have a little rock talk. From studying Earth we know anorthosite forms
in a very special way. It’s an igneous rock, meaning it forms from
cooling lava or magma. As magma cools and crystallizes, anorthosite
floats to the top, because it’s lighter and less dense than other stuff in the magma. Like how as ice solidifies out of liquid water,
it floats because it’s less dense. So for the moon’s surface to be covered
in this white stuff, the moon must have melted at some point. Like, the whole thing. A moon that was all magma. A Magmoon. But now scientists had a different mystery
to solve: How the heck do you melt a moon? Ryan: And then a guy named John Wood came
up with this crazy idea that the moon formed through a giant impact, all based on these
millimeter sized fragments from one spot in the moon. And everyone’s like, “naw!” This is called the giant impact hypothesis. Earth gets smacked by another planet-sized
thing, the giant, melted cloud of debris condenses into our moon, creating a thousand-km-thick
ocean of magma. That’s a pretty loony story too, but none
of those other older theories about the moon’s formation could explain ALL of its weirdness,
like why the moon’s core is so small and so light compared to Earth’s core, or why
the moon has slowly been moving farther away from Earth for billions of years, or why the
Earth and moon are made of the same elements and atomic isotopes. The giant impact theory could explain all
of these, but to convince people that something collided with the Earth 4 and a half billion
years ago and created a magmoon… scientists needed a little more evidence. Ryan: This is what we call the Genesis Rock. 15415 it was collected on the Apollo 15 mission
and the Apollo 15 site was selected in part to find this rock. When they got it back and they did the studies
on it. This was the rock that allowed scientists
to unlock how the moon formed. A body the size of Mars slammed into the Earth
just after the Earth formed. A ring of debris formed around the Earth,
sort of like Saturn’s rings, unlike Saturn’s rings that all collected into our moon. So all the individual pieces collided together
and formed our moon. So every impact that brought the different
pieces together, kinetic energy, It produced heat and so you melted the outer hundreds
and probably thousand kilometers. There’s an ocean of magma thousand kilometers
deep. So now you’ve got this giant of magma, lava. And as it cools, things start to crystallize
and the heavy minerals would sink out and the light minerals would float. And it turns out this white mineral plagioclase
is less dense and it floated to the surface. So you have rock bergs floating in an ocean
of magma and eventually you have nothing but rock bergs and the entire surface is covered
with this anorthosite. And then you have billions of years of impacts
and things get smashed and moved around. But this is the original piece. It showed us how things formed. Anorthosites like the Genesis Rock turn out
to be the oldest rocks on the moon. They date from the earliest age of the solar
system, from the time when Earth and the other planets were just forming, and thanks to us
putting a few humans on the moon to collect rocks, scientists were finally able to write
the story of how the moon was created. And that story is a pretty violent one. But I think behind this story, there’s something
maybe even more significant. The journey to the moon wasn’t all about
science at first, it began as a race between the US and the Soviet Union to build technology,
and to prove their military supremacy to each other and the world. But moon rocks helped change that. We began to see space as a place for science
that the whole world could use, and by the end of the Apollo era, we weren’t just sending
Air Force rocket jockeys up there, we were sending scientists. And I think that changed NASA’s mission
forever. The last man on the moon, Gene Cernan, summed
this idea up beautifully just before humans left the lunar surface for the last time. Despite their old age, we’re still learning
new things from the moon rocks. The history of the moon isn’t wrapped up
just yet. Maybe we’ll go back one day and science
that chubby nugget a little bit more. This has been absolutely incredible. I, my mind has been blown not only about like
the history of the moon, but just how amazing is the science that NASA been doing. Thank you so much for letting us in here. Thanks for the awesome outfit. Yeah, absolutely. Yeah. Stay curious! Um, so do I get like, take a sample? Oh, yeah, no, no. Yeah. Even tho I didn’t get to keep a moon rock.This was an incredible video to make, I feel really
lucky that I got to share this with you. And you can keep your brain on the moon a
little longer, because some of our friends just put out videos from the NASA moon rock
vault too. So head over to Smarter Every Day and Objectivity
where Destin and Brady have some more cool Apollo moon rock science for you. I’ll put links to those down in the description,
or just check out the end of this video and you can find links there.

100 thoughts on “Apollo’s Most Important Discovery (Inside NASA’s Moon Rock Vault!)

  1. JUST TO CLARIFY: I did not actually get a moon rock. That was a joke. There was no lunar heist. No NASA caper. 🤓
    What's inside NASA's moon rock vault? Duh… MOON ROCKS! But there's also a LOT MORE. Inside that vault we can find the story of the moon itself. Geology rocks, huh? Be sure to check out videos from our friends Smarter Every Day and Objectivity, too.

    I'm on Twitter and Instagram @DrJoeHanson/@okaytobesmart go tag yourself watching this video!

  2. It's quite simple to explain how the moon formed – it is the dead core of an ancient star: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CM0Hi0YwAJA

  3. I thought that moon dust was toxic? The astronauts would have been covered with it when they re-entered the lunar lander. That dust must have covered everything. The impact theory regarding the creation of the Moon had been ruled out as having never occurred. One possible theory is that the Sun had a micronova and it would have released a plasma discharge that would've melted the moon's surface. Incidentally, where does the Earth derive the gravity substantial to keep a satellite of the moon's mass in orbit?

  4. 4:11

    How did he not know that those craters

    I can just eyeball the moon and Identify those as craters

    Or was Galileo blind

  5. Excuse me sir are you serious or is this some type of practical joke nevertheless I am not amused the Moon what's plate gear it is not a planet please do some research it's Hollow it looks like a bell when a bomb was set off on its surface in any event please let it be known the truth thank you

  6. If you wanted to keep a 500 year hoax perpetuated you would need a continuance of insiders to help promote the illusion of delusion that the earth was just a tiny speck in the whole universe of things and that Man was just and insignificant part of the whole.

    Freemasons have been involved since the beginnings of NASA. If there was a group who could pull of a great hoax to fool nearly the entire planet, it would be possible through the Freemasons.

    By declaring that Scottish Right Freemasons planted a flag on the moon the Freemasons gained many members in their secret society, whether they actually went or not. An inordinate number of NASA astronauts, the current propagators of the globalist heliocentric doctrine, are/were admitted Freemasons as well. John Glenn, two-time US senator and one of NASA’s first astronauts is a known Mason.

    From the British Grand Lodge in Vancouver and the Yukon web page celebrating their Freemason bretheren. This hooks all into the testament of their secret societies power and it is only those in the highest of degrees that get let in on the Big Secret, which then confers more power to those high enough to be in the truly knowing.

  7. Actually, the Moon was towed into orbit and the craft that most likely did the towing is parked in the Rings of Saturn.

  8. Umm.. Covered in white stuff? Haven't you guys ever thought maybe it could only be dry cum shots? The moons a whore, or use to be.

  9. If a mars size object hit earth, why isn’t the earth’s orbit elliptical? My theory is that earth was binary and ripped the other planet due to roche limit

  10. That was spectacularly well done! Very entertaining and insightful, with lots of trivia and just a hint of comedy to keep it light hearted. Sad that some bone heads commenting can't give it the respect that this video deserves. I subscribed right after watching it. Keep up the very professional and entertaining work. I'm a fan. Cheers!

  11. It's not ok to be indoctrinated by NASA. Moon rocks? Petrified wood, it turns out. Be smarter than this guy and learn Biblical Cosmology.

  12. Except thats not how the moon formed. How did you know how old that rock is… Did you "carbon date it" lmao

  13. The discovery of anorthosite rocks on the moon tells us that it was drifting for a distant distance towards the earth after it has already solidified from a lump of hot magma. Therefore the moon has huge kinetic energy that enable it to revolving round the earth. Without such huge kinetic energy, the moon would surely plunge towards the earth. Likewise, the earth was also drifting from a distant distance towards the sun before it set in its current orbit while revolving round the sun under the spinning-gravitational effect of the sun. Otherwise the earth will plunge into the sun. If you are interested in real discoveries, I would recommend you to read my book, The Unification Theory – Volume One and you will be amazed with lots of new, interesting discoveries. In God I trust.

  14. If impact theory were true, would helium 3 exist on Earth? Why does the element only appear on the moon?What do you think about it and for useful explanations I would be grateful.

  15. What if the truth of the moon is a lie and their feeding us these stories to put us at easy, when really the moon is a alien satellite to spy on us or to monitor us

  16. Not this petrified wood rock again that is from earth as no one can land on light….
    Nasa the gods of 🧙‍♂️🧙‍♂️

  17. Really shoot this stupid bastard of course the moon was molten rock, and the impact thing already proven wrong, wow I am now more stupid.

  18. The moon was towed here by an ancient race that I suspect is still around.. This has bean written about many thousands of years ago. this ancient race had made our solar system their home and did work on many of the solar bodies . its hard for us to imagine the scale of which they were capable. our planet has bean quarried on a giant scale. This planet use to have silica trees miles high which were cut down all over the world. who could cut down a rock tree miles high? Our real history and information on how our planet and other bodies in the solar system came about is hidden because the trooth would show a completely differ Storie . The alians are still on the moon by the way, :Look in to the Moon Wave and tel me thats not some kind of technology that's on a level of wow? Then ask your self, what do I really know except for what I was told to believe?

  19. MOON ROCK IS FAKE. ( Petrified wood) MOON ROCK IS FAKE. nobody has been to the MOON or into space. How about telling the truth for a change.

  20. "How did that little nugget we call the moon form?"
    The answer's in the basement u say? I had absolutely no idea that God down there! And since 1970 too!?! Impressive work y'all

  21. The sea of tranquility! They actually got those rocks while scuba diving in it! There is a misconception about them using a rover on the moon.. it was actually just a regular old small boat!

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