In our previous lesson, we have learned about good source of energy. Here, in this lesson let’s discuss about conventional sources of energy. So what are conventional sources of energy? Conventional sources of energy are sources of energy, which had been used since a long time. Some of the known conventional sources of energy in India are Coal, Petroleum, hydro-power, etc. Now we know what are conventional sources of energy. So it’s the time to find out, very used conventional source of energy in our daily life. So let’s start with Fossil fuels. Just ask your grandparents that what was the most common source for heating at their time. Almost, all will be saying wood and if you ask them what was the most common resource for commercial heating purpose. Their answer will be coal. In fact, if you watch some old movies you can see in industries and in trains coals was used. The exploitation of coal as a source of energy, made industrial revolution possible. This increasing industrialization has led to a better life quality. The growing demand of energy was largely met by using fossil fuels. Our technology was also been developed by using, these sources of energy. But, the fossil fuels are formed millions of years ago and there are only limited resources. The fact that we all should be aware of is, fossil fuels are non-renewable resources of energy, so we should conserve them. Being an efficient source of energy, fossil fuels have some disadvantages too. We have already learned about air pollution caused by the burning of coal or petroleum, the oxides of carbon nitrogen and sulphur which are released by the burning of fossil fuels, are acidic oxides, this will lead to acid rain, which will affect our water and soil resources. But at the same time we can reduce the air pollution caused by the burning of Fossil fuels, by increasing the efficiency of combustion process and by using various techniques. Do you know? Besides been using directly for various purposes such as, in a gas stove or our vehicle, Fossil fuels are the major fuels for generating electricity. We basically use fossil fuels in a thermal power plant, to generate electricity. In a thermal power plant large amount of Fossil fuels are burned every day, to heat up water to produce, steam which runs the turbine to generate electricity. Another traditional source of energy, was a kinetic energy of flowing water or the potential energy of water at a height. Hydropower plant converts the potential energy of water, at the height into electricity. Since there are very few waterfalls, hydropower plants are associated with dams. As we know, a quarter of energy requirement in India, is met by hydropower plants. Now, let’s understand the working of a hydropower plant. In order to produce hydroelectricity, high-rise dams are constructed on the river, so the water level rises and in this process the kinetic energy gets transformed into potential energy. The water from the high level of the dam, is carried through pipes to the turbine at the bottom of the dam. Since the water reservoir would be getting refilled, each time it rains, we would not have to worry about hydroelectricity. Here in this lesson we have learned about conventional sources of energy and also we have learned about the working of a thermal power plant and hydropower plant.