Solar power in India | Wikipedia audio article

Solar power in India | Wikipedia audio article


Solar power in India is a fast developing
industry. The country’s solar installed capacity reached
26 GW as of 30 September 2018. India expanded its solar-generation capacity
8 times from 2,650 MW on 26 May 2014 to over 20 GW as on 31 January 2018. The 20 GW capacity was initially targeted
for 2022 but the government achieved the target four years ahead of schedule. The country added 3 GW of solar capacity in
2015-2016, 5 GW in 2016-2017 and over 10 GW in 2017-2018, with the average current price
of solar electricity dropping to 18% below the average price of its coal-fired counterpart.In
January 2015 the Indian government expanded its solar plans, targeting US$100 billion
in investment and 100 GW of solar capacity (including 40 GW from rooftop solar) by 2022. India’s initiative of 100 GW of solar energy
by 2022 is an ambitious target, since the world’s installed solar-power capacity in
2017 is expected to be 303 GW. The improvements in solar thermal storage
power technology in recent years has made this task achievable as the cheaper solar
power need not depend on costly and polluting coal/gas/nuclear based power generation for
ensuring stable grid operation.In addition to its large-scale grid-connected solar PV
initiative, India is developing off-grid solar power for local energy needs. Solar products have increasingly helped to
meet rural needs; by the end of 2015 just under one million solar lanterns were sold
in the country, reducing the need for kerosene. That year, 118,700 solar home lighting systems
were installed and 46,655 solar street lighting installations were provided under a national
program; just over 1.4 million solar cookers were distributed in India.In January 2016,
Prime Minister Narendra Modi and French President François Hollande laid the foundation stone
for the headquarters of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) in Gwal Pahari, Gurgaon. The ISA will focus on promoting and developing
solar energy and solar products for countries lying wholly or partially between the Tropic
of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The alliance of over 120 countries was announced
at the Paris COP21 climate summit. One hope of the ISA is that wider deployment
will reduce production and development costs, facilitating the increased deployment of solar
technologies to poor and remote regions. A report published by the Institute for Energy
Economics and Financial Analysis (IEEFA) found that India installed 10 GW of solar in 2017,
almost double its record in 2016. Crucially, India’s “Scheme for Development
of Solar Parks” has proven successful at attracting foreign capital toward construction
of the world’s largest ultra-mega solar parks.==Resources==
With about 300 clear and sunny days in a year, the calculated solar energy incidence on India’s
land area is about 5000 trillion kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year (or 5 EWh/yr). The solar energy available in a single year
exceeds the possible energy output of all of the fossil fuel energy reserves in India. The daily average solar-power-plant generation
capacity in India is 0.20 kWh per m2 of used land area, equivalent to 1400–1800 peak
(rated) capacity operating hours in a year with available, commercially-proven technology.==Installations by region=====
Karnataka===Karnataka is the top solar state in India
exceeding 5,000 MW installed capacity by the end of financial year 2017-18. The installed capacity of Pavagada Solar Park
is 600 MW and its ultimate 2,000 MW installed capacity is expected by the end of year 2020.===Andhra Pradesh===Installed photovoltaic capacity in Andhra
Pradesh is more than 2049 MW as on 31 July 2017. In 2014, the IPPs agreed with APTransCo to
install 619 MW. The following year, NTPC agreed with APTransCo
to install the 250-MW NP Kunta Ultra Mega Solar Power Project near Kadiri in Anantapur
district. In October 2017, 1000 MW was commissioned
at Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park which has become the world’s largest solar power plant.===Rajasthan===
Rajasthan is one of India’s most solar-developed states, with its total photovoltaic capacity
reaching 2289 MW by the end of June, 2018. Rajasthan is also home to the worlds largest
Fresnel type 125 MW CSP plant at the Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Park. Jodhpur district leads the state with installed
capacity of over 1,500 MW, followed by Jaisalmer and Bikaner. The Bhadla Solar Park, with a total ultimate
capacity of 2,255 MW, is being developed in four phases of which 260 MW capacity was commissioned
by NTPC Limited. Total installed capacity at the end of June,
2018 is 745 MW and the remaining capacity is expected to be commissioned by March, 2019. In September 2018 Acme Solar announced that
it had commissioned India’s cheapest solar power, 200 MW at Bhadla
. The only tower type solar thermal power plant
(2.5 MW) in India is located in Bikaner district.===Tamil Nadu===
Tamil Nadu has the 5th highest installed solar-power capacity in India on May 2018. The total installed capacity in Tamil Nadu
is 1,8 GW. On 1 July 2017, Solar power tariff in Tamil
Nadu has hit an all-time low of Rs 3.47 per unit when bidding for 1500 MW capacity was
held.The 648-MW Kamuthi Solar Power Project is the biggest operating project in the state. On 1 January 2018, NLC India Limited (NCIL)
commissioned a new 130 MW solar power project in Neyveli.===Gujarat===Gujarat is one of India’s most solar-developed
states, with its total photovoltaic capacity reaching 1,262 MW by the end of July 2017. Gujarat has been a leader in solar-power generation
in India due to its high solar-power potential, availability of vacant land, connectivity,
transmission and distribution infrastructure and utilities. According to a report by the Low Emission
Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP) report, these attributes are complemented
by political will and investment. The 2009 Solar Power of Gujarat policy framework,
financing mechanism and incentives have contributed to a green investment climate in the state
and targets for grid-connected solar power.The state has commissioned Asia’s largest solar
park near the village of Charanka in Patan district. The park is generating 2 MW of its total planned
capacity of 500 MW, and has been cited as an innovative and environmentally-friendly
project by the Confederation of Indian Industry.To make Gandhinagar a solar-power city, the state
government has begun a rooftop solar-power generation scheme. Under the scheme, Gujarat plans to generate
5 MW of solar power by putting solar panels on about 50 state-government buildings and
500 private buildings. It also plans to generate solar power by putting
solar panels along the Narmada canals. As part of this scheme, the state has commissioned
the 1 MW Canal Solar Power Project on a branch of the Narmada Canal near the village of Chandrasan
in Mehsana district. The pilot project is expected to stop 90,000
litres (24,000 US gal; 20,000 imp gal) of water per year from evaporating from the Narmada
River.===Maharashtra===
The 125-MW Sakri solar plant is the largest solar-power plant in Maharashtra. The Shri Saibaba Sansthan Trust has the world’s
largest solar steam system. It was constructed at the Shirdi shrine at
an estimated cost of ₹1.33 crore (US$190,000), ₹58.4 lakh (US$81,000) which was paid as
a subsidy by the renewable-energy ministry. The system is used to cook 50,000 meals per
day for pilgrims visiting the shrine, resulting in annual savings of 100,000 kg of cooking
gas, and was designed to generate steam for cooking even in the absence of electricity
to run the circulating pump. The project to install and commission the
system was completed in seven months, and the system has a design life of 25 years. The Osmanabad region in Maharashtra has abundant
sunlight, and is ranked the third-best region in India in solar insolation. A 10 MW solar power plant in Osmanabad was
commissioned in 2013. The total power capacity of Maharashtra is
about 500 MW.===Madhya Pradesh===
Madhya Pradesh is one of India’s most solar-developed states, with its total photovoltaic capacity
reaching 1,117 MW by the end of July 2017. The Welspun Solar MP project, the largest
solar-power plant in the state, was built at a cost of ₹1,100 crore (US$150 million)
on 305 ha (3.05 km2) of land and will supply power at ₹8.05 (11¢ US) per kWh. A 130 MW solar power plant project at Bhagwanpura,
a village in Neemuch district, was launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. It is the largest solar producer, and Welspun
Energy is one of the top three companies in India’s renewable-energy sector. A planned 750 MW solar-power plant in Rewa
district is also planned and expected to be completed in 2018. This is developing by Rewa Ultra Mega Solar
Limited.===Kerala===
India’s largest floating solar power plant was set upon the Banasura Sagar reservoir
in Wayanad, Kerala. The 500 kW (kilowatt peak) solar plant of
the Kerala state electricity board (KSEB) floats on 1.25 acres of the water surface
of the reservoir. The solar plant has 1,938 solar panels which
have been installed on 18 Ferro cement floaters with hollow insides.==Electricity generation==
Grid-connected solar electricity generation has reached nearly 2% of total utility electricity
generation. Solar generation meets the daytime peak load
in non-monsoon months when electricity spot prices exceed the daily average price.==Major photovoltaic power stations==
Below is a list of solar power generation facilities with a capacity of at least 10
MW.==Solar photovoltaic growth forecasts==
In August 2016, the forecast for solar photovoltaic installations was about 4.8 GW for the calendar
year. About 2.8 GW was installed in the first eight
months of 2016, more than all 2015 solar installations. India’s solar projects stood at about 21 GW,
with about 14 GW under construction and about 7 GW to be auctioned. The country’s solar capacity reached 19.7
GW by the end of 2017, making it the third-largest global solar market.In mid-2018 the Indian
power minister RK Singh flagged a tender for a 100GW solar plant at an event in Delhi,
while discussing a 10GW tender due to be issued in July that year (at the time, a world record). He also increased the government target for
installed renewable energy by 2022 to 227GW.==Solar thermal power==The installed capacity of commercial solar
thermal power plants (non storage type) in India is 227.5 MW with 50 MW in Andhra Pradesh
and 177.5 MW in Rajasthan. Solar thermal plants with thermal storage
are emerging as cheaper (US 6.1 ¢/kWh or Rs 3.97/KWh) and clean load following power
plants to supply electricity round the clock. They can cater the load demand perfectly and
work as base load power plants when the extracted solar energy is found excess in a day. Proper mix of solar thermal (thermal storage
type) and solar PV can fully match the load fluctuations without the need of costly battery
storage.The existing solar thermal power plants (non-storage type) in India which are generating
costly intermittent power on daily basis, can be converted into storage type solar thermal
plants to generate 3 to 4 times more baseload power at cheaper cost and not depend on government
subsidies.==Hybrid solar plants==
Solar power, generated mainly during the daytime in the non-monsoon period, complements wind
which generate power during the monsoon months in India. Solar panels can be located in the space between
the towers of wind-power plants. It also complements hydroelectricity, generated
primarily during India’s monsoon months. Solar-power plants can be installed near existing
hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity, utilizing the existing power transmission
infrastructure and storing the surplus secondary power generated by the solar PV plants.During
the daytime, the additional auxiliary power consumption of a solar thermal storage power
plant is nearly 10% of its rated capacity for the process of extracting solar energy
in the form of thermal energy. This auxiliary power requirement can be made
available from cheaper solar PV plant by envisaging hybrid solar plant with a mix of solar thermal
and solar PV plants at a site. Also to optimise the cost of power, generation
can be from the cheaper solar PV plant (33% generation) during the daylight whereas the
rest of the time in a day is from the solar thermal storage plant (67% generation from
Solar power tower and parabolic trough types) for meeting 24 hours base load operation. When solar thermal storage plant is forced
to idle due to lack of sunlight locally during cloudy days in monsoon season, it is also
possible to consume (similar to a lesser efficient, huge capacity and low cost battery storage
system) the cheap excess grid power when the grid frequency is above 50 hz for heating
the hot molten salt to higher temperature for converting stored thermal energy in to
electricity during the peak demand hours when the electricity sale price is profitable.==Solar heating==Generating hot water or air or steam using
concentrated solar reflectors, is increasing rapidly. Presently concentrated solar thermal installation
base for heating applications is about 20 MWth in India and expected to grow rapidly. Cogeneration of steam and power round the
clock is also feasible with solar thermal CHP plants with storage capacity. Bengaluru has the largest deployment of roof-top
solar water heaters in India, generating an energy equivalent of 200 MW. It is India’s first city to provide a rebate
of ₹50 (70¢ US) on monthly electricity bills for residents using roof-top thermal
systems, which are now mandatory in all new structures. Pune has also made solar water heaters mandatory
in new buildings. Photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels produce
simultaneously the required warm water/air along with electricity under sunlight.==Rural electrification==
The lack of an electricity infrastructure is a hurdle to rural India’s development. India’s power grid is under-developed, with
large groups of people still living off the grid. In 2004, about 80,000 of the nation’s villages
still did not have electricity; of them, 18,000 could not be electrified by extending the
conventional grid. A target of electrifying 5,000 such villages
was set for the 2002–2007 Five-Year Plan. By 2004 more than 2,700 villages and hamlets
were electrified, primarily with solar photovoltaic systems. The development of inexpensive solar technology
is considered a potential alternative, providing an electricity infrastructure consisting of
a network of local-grid clusters with distributed electricity generation. It could bypass (or relieve) expensive, long-distance,
centralized power-delivery systems, bringing inexpensive electricity to large groups of
people. In Rajasthan during FY2016-17, 91 villages
have been electrified with a solar standalone system and over 6,200 households have received
a 100W solar home-lighting system.India has sold or distributed about 1.2 million solar
home-lighting systems and 3.2 million solar lanterns, and has been ranked the top Asian
market for solar off-grid products.===Lamps and lighting===
By 2012, a total of 4,600,000 solar lanterns and 861,654 solar-powered home lights were
installed. Typically replacing kerosene lamps, they can
be purchased for the cost of a few months’ worth of kerosene with a small loan. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy is
offering a 30- to 40-percent subsidy of the cost of lanterns, home lights and small systems
(up to 210 Wp). Twenty million solar lamps are expected by
2022.===Agricultural support===
Solar photovoltaic water-pumping systems are used for irrigation and drinking water. Most pumps are fitted with a 200–3,000 W
(0.27–4.02 hp) motor powered with a 1,800 Wp PV array which can deliver about 140,000
litres (37,000 US gal) of water per day from a total hydraulic head of 10 m (33 ft). By 30 September 2006 a total of 7,068 solar
photovoltaic water pumping systems were installed, and 7,771 were installed by March 2012. During hot sunny daytime when the water needs
are more for watering the fields, solar pumps performance can be improved by maintaining
pumped water flowing/sliding over the solar panels to keep them cooler and clean. Solar driers are used to dry harvests for
storage. Low cost solar powered bicycles are also available
to ply between fields and village for agricultural activity, etc.===Rainwater harvesting===
In addition to solar energy, rainwater is a major renewable resource of any area. In India, large areas are being covered by
solar PV panels every year. Solar panels can also be used for harvesting
most of the rainwater falling on them and drinking-quality water, free from bacteria
and suspended matter, can be generated by simple filtration and disinfection processes,
as rainwater is very low in salinity. Good quality water resources, closer to populated
areas, are becoming a scarcity and increasingly costly for consumers. Exploitation of rainwater for value-added
products like bottled drinking water makes solar PV power plants profitable even in high
rainfall and cloudy areas by the increased income from drinking water generation.==Refrigeration and air conditioning==Thin-film solar cell panels offer better performance
than crystalline silica solar panels in tropical hot and dusty places like India; there is
less deterioration in conversion efficiency with increased ambient temperature, and no
partial shading effect. These factors enhance the performance and
reliability (fire safety) of thin-film panels. Maximum solar-electricity generation during
the hot hours of the day can be used for meeting residential air-conditioning requirements
regardless of other load requirements, such as refrigeration, lighting, cooking and water
pumping. Power generation of photovoltaic modules can
be increased by 17 to 20 percent by equipping them with a tracking system.Residential electricity
consumers who are paying higher slab rates more than ₹5 (7.0¢ US) per unit, can form
in to local groups to install collectively roof top off-grid solar power units (without
much battery storage) and replace the costly power used from the grid with the solar power
as and when produced. Hence power drawl from the grid which is an
assured power supply without much power cuts nowadays, serves as cheaper back up source
when grid power consumption is limited to lower slab rate by using solar power during
the day time. The maximum power generation of solar panels
during the sunny daytime is complementary with the enhanced residential electricity
consumption during the hot/summer days due to higher use of cooling appliances such as
fans, refrigerators, air conditioners, desert coolers, etc. It would discourage the Discoms to extract
higher electricity charges selectively from its consumers. There is no need of any permission from Discoms
similar to DG power sets installation. Cheaper discarded batteries of electric vehicle
can also be used economically to store the excess solar power generated in the daylight.==Grid stabilisation==Solar-power plants equipped with battery-storage
systems where net energy metering is used can feed stored electricity into the power
grid when its frequency is below the rated parameter (50 Hz) and draw excess power from
the grid when its frequency is above the rated parameter. Excursions above and below the rated grid
frequency occur about 100 times daily. The solar-plant owner would receive nearly
double the price for electricity sent into the grid compared to that consumed from the
grid if a frequency-based tariff is offered to rooftop solar plants or plants dedicated
to a distribution substation. A power-purchase agreement (PPA) is not needed
for solar plants with a battery storage system to serve ancillary-service operations and
transmit generated electricity for captive consumption using an open-access facility. Battery storage is popular in India, with
more than 10 million households using battery backup during load shedding. Battery storage systems are also used to improve
the power factor.Battery storage is also used economically to reduce daily/monthly peak
power demand for minimising the monthly demand charges from the utility to the commercial
and industrial establishments. Construction power tariffs are very high in
India. Construction power needs of long gestation
mega projects can be economically met by installing solar PV plants for permanent service in the
project premises with or without battery storage for minimising use of Standby generator sets
or costly grid power.==Challenges and opportunities==The land is scarce in India, and per-capita
land availability is low. Dedication of land for the installation of
solar arrays must compete with other needs. The amount of land required for utility-scale
solar power plants is about 1 km2 (250 acres) for every 40–60 MW generated. One alternative is to use the water-surface
area on canals, lakes, reservoirs, farm ponds and the sea for large solar-power plants. These water bodies can also provide water
to clean the solar panels. Highways and railways may also avoid the cost
of land nearer to load centres, minimising transmission-line costs by having solar plants
about 10 meters above the roads or rail tracks. Solar power generated by road areas may also
be used for in-motion charging of electric vehicles, reducing fuel costs. Highways would avoid damage from rain and
summer heat, increasing comfort for commuters.The architecture best suited to most of India
would be a set of rooftop power-generation systems connected via a local grid. Such an infrastructure, which does not have
the economy of scale of mass, utility-scale solar-panel deployment, needs a lower deployment
price to attract individuals and family-sized households. Photovoltaics are projected to continue their
cost reductions, becoming able to compete with fossil fuels.Greenpeace recommends that
India adopt a policy of developing solar power as a dominant component of its renewable-energy
mix, since its identity as a densely-populated country in the tropical belt of the subcontinent
has an ideal combination of high insolation and a large potential consumer base. In one scenario India could make renewable
resources the backbone of its economy by 2030, curtailing carbon emissions without compromising
its economic-growth potential. A study suggested that 100 GW of solar power
could be generated through a mix of utility-scale and rooftop solar, with the realizable potential
for rooftop solar between 57 and 76 GW by 2024.During the 2015-16 fiscal year NTPC,
with 110 MW solar power installations, generated 160.8 million kWh at a capacity utilisation
of 16.64 percent (1,458 kWh per kW)—more than 20 percent below the claimed norms of
the solar-power industry.It is considered prudent to encourage solar-plant installations
up to a threshold (such as 7,000 MW) by offering incentives. Otherwise, substandard equipment with overrated
nameplate capacity may tarnish the industry. The purchaser, transmission agency and financial
institution should require capacity utilisation and long-term performance guarantees for the
equipment backed by insurance coverage in the event that the original equipment manufacturer
ceases to exist. Alarmed by the low quality of equipment, India
issued draft quality guide lines in May 2017 to be followed by the solar plant equipment
suppliers conforming to Indian standards.==Government support==Fifty-one solar radiation resource assessment
stations have been installed across India by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE) to create a database of solar-energy potential. Data is collected and reported to the Centre
for Wind Energy Technology (C-WET) to create a solar atlas. In June 2015, India began a ₹40 crore (US$5.6
million) project to measure solar radiation with a spatial resolution of 3 by 3 kilometres
(1.9 mi × 1.9 mi). This solar-radiation measuring network will
provide the basis for the Indian solar-radiation atlas. According to National Institute of Wind Energy
officials, the Solar Radiation Resource Assessment wing (121 ground stations) would measure solar
radiation’s three parameters—Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI), Direct Normal Irradiance
(DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI)—to accurately measure a region’s solar radiation.The
Indian government is promoting solar energy. It announced an allocation of ₹1,000 crore
(US$140 million) for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission and a clean-energy
fund for the 2010-11 fiscal year, an increase of ₹380 crore (US$53 million) from the previous
budget. The budget encouraged private solar companies
by reducing the import duty on solar panels by five percent. This is expected to reduce the cost of a rooftop
solar-panel installation by 15 to 20 percent.===Solar PV tariff===The average bid in reverse auctions in April
2017 is ₹3.15 (4.4¢ US) per kWh, compared with ₹12.16 (17¢ US) per kWh in 2010, which
is around 73% drop over the time window. The current prices of solar PV electricity
is around 18% lower than the average price for electricity generated by coal-fired plants. Competitive reverse auctions, falling panel
and component prices, the introduction of solar parks, lower borrowing costs and large
power companies have contributed to the fall in prices. The cost of solar PV power in India, China,
Brazil and 55 other emerging markets fell to about one-third of its 2010 price, making
solar the cheapest form of renewable energy and cheaper than power generated from fossil
fuels such as coal and gas.The levelized cost of solar PV electricity fell below 1.77¢
US per kWh in November 2017, cheaper than fuel cost of any pit head coal-based power
plants in India. The intermittent / non-dispatchable solar
PV at the prevailing low tariffs clubbed with Pumped-heat electricity storage can offer
cheapest dispatchable power round the clock on demand. The Indian government has reduced the solar
PV power purchase price from the maximum allowed ₹4.43 (6.2¢ US) per KWh to ₹4.00 (5.6¢
US) per KWh, reflecting the steep fall in cost of solar power-generation equipment. The applicable tariff is offered after applying
viability gap funding (VGF) or accelerated depreciation (AD) incentives.Solar PV generation
cost fell to ₹2.97 (4.1¢ US) per kWh for the 750 MW Rewa Ultra Mega Solar power project,
India’s lowest electricity-generation cost. Solar panel prices are lower than those of
mirrors by unit area.In an auction of 250 MW capacity of the second phase in Bhadla
solar park, South Africa’s Phelan Energy Group and Avaada Power were awarded 50 MW and 100
MW of capacity respectively in May 2017 at ₹2.62 (3.6¢ US) per kilowatt hour. The tariff is also lower than NTPC’s average
coal power tariff of ₹3.20 per kilowatt hour. SBG Cleantech, a consortium of Softbank Group,
Airtel and Foxconn, was awarded the remaining 100 MW capacity at a rate of ₹2.63 (3.7¢
US) per kWh. Few days later in a second auction for another
500 MW at the same park, solar tariff has further fallen to ₹2.44 (3.4¢ US) per kilowatt
hour which are the lowest tariffs for any solar power project in India. These tariffs are lower than traded prices
for day time in non-monsoon period in IEX and also for meeting peak loads on daily basis
by using cheaper solar PV power in pumped-storage hydroelectricity stations indicating there
is no need of any power purchase agreements and any incentives for the solar PV power
plants in India. Solar PV power plant developers are forecasting
that solar power tariff would drop to ₹1.5 (2.1¢ US) /unit in near future.The lowest
solar tariff in May 2018 is Rs 2.71/kWh (without incentives) which is less than the tariff
of Badla solar park (₹2.44 (3.4¢ US) per kWh with VGF incentive) after the clarification
that any additional taxes are pass through cost with hike in the tariff. In early July 2018 bids, the lowest solar
PV tariff has touched ₹2.44 (3.4¢ US) per kWh without VGF incentive. The tariff for roof top installations are
also falling with the recent offer of ₹3.64 (5.1¢ US) with 100% locally made components.===Incentives===At the end of July 2015, the chief incentives
were: Viability Gap Funding: Under the reverse bidding
process, bidders who need least viability gap funding at the reference tariff (RS 4.93
per unit in 2016) is selected.. Funding was Rs 1 Crore/MW for open projects
on average in 2016. Accelerated depreciation: For profit-making
enterprises installing rooftop solar systems, 40 percent of the total investment could be
claimed as depreciation in the first year (decreasing taxes). To protect the local solar panel manufacturers,
25% safe guard duty is imposed for two years period from August 2018 on the imports from
China & Malaysia who are suspected of dumping solar panels in to India. Capital subsidies were applicable to rooftop
solar-power plants up to a maximum of 500 kW. The 30-percent subsidy was reduced to 15 percent. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs): Tradeable
certificates providing financial incentives for every unit of green power generated. Net metering incentives depend on whether
a net meter is installed and the utility’s incentive policy. If so, financial incentives are available
for the power generated. Assured Power Purchase Agreement (PPA): The
power-distribution and -purchase companies owned by state and central governments guarantee
the purchase of solar PV power when produced only during daylight. The PPAs offer fair market determined tariff
for the solar power which is a secondary power or negative load and an intermittent energy
source on a daily basis. Interstate transmission system (ISTS) charges
and losses are not levied during the period of PPA for the projects commissioned before
31 March 2022. Additional incentives are offered to roof
top solar power plants both from central and various state governments.==Solar-panel manufacturing==
The 2018 manufacturing capacity of solar cells and solar modules in India was 1,590 MW and
5,620 MW, respectively. Except for crystalline silicon wafers or cadmium
telluride photovoltaics or Float-zone silicon, nearly 80 percent of solar-panel weight is
flat glass. One hundred to 150 tons of flat glass is used
to manufacture a one-MW solar panel. Low-iron flat or float glass is manufactured
from soda ash and iron-free silica. Soda-ash manufacturing from common salt is
an energy-intensive process if it is not extracted from soda lakes or glasswort cultivation in
alkali soil. To increase installation of photovoltaic solar-power
plants, the production of flat glass and its raw materials must expand commensurately to
eliminate supply constraints or future imports.==List of top solar panel suppliers in India
==For utility scale solar projects, top solar
module suppliers in 2016-17 were: Trina Solar, JA Solar, Canadian Solar, Risen, Hanwha and
GCL Poly. For rooftop solar projects, international
companies with the largest market share in the Indian market were: Trina Solar, Canadian
Solar, Renesola, REC Solar and Jinko Solar. Similarly, top Indian suppliers were: Vikram
Solar, Waaree, Adani, Emmvee and Jakson.==See also====
References==

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